The main activity of INB is conducting fundamental and scientific-applied research in the field of neurosciences, by means of interdisciplinary neurophysiological, psychophysiological and pharmacological approaches to obtain new knowledge about the neurobiological mechanisms of organization, adaptation and regulation of the human and animal body and the pharmacological effects on them; creation of new diagnostic and prognostic methods to improve the quality of life, the intellectual and physical capabilities of man, in accordance with the European strategy "Europe 2020" and the national priorities and scientific policy of BAS; integration of INB into the European Research Area.
The Institute of Neurobiology annually prepares doctoral students. Scientists from the institute participate in the educational process of a number of higher education institutions in the country and abroad through lecture courses, seminars and exercises, activities with students and graduates.
The Institute of Neurobiology employs scientists with an internationally recognized authority. The scientific production is traditionally at a high level. The cooperation with leading universities in Europe and America has been long-standing and fruitful, resulting in a number of joint scientific works and publications and participation in organizational committees of international scientific forums.